Gone with the wind: pesticides-phyllosphere microbiome interactions in agricultural ecosystems
Pesticide application can be accompanied by target-off effects that affect humans, animals, as well as whole ecosystems. However, such effects remain mainly unaddressed in connection with microorganisms, and especially bacteria therein, which are essential for ecosystem functioning and host health. In our studies, pesticide applications had an effect on the core microbiome as well as the rare microbiome. Moreover, the interference of the pesticide with phyllosphere bacteria was found to be selective. For instance, by using cultivated Nicotiana tabacum L. as model ecosystem, we have identified four positive responders including an ASV assigned to the genus Acinetobacter and 12 negative responders mainly assigned to bacterial genera known for beneficial plant-microbe interactions, including Stenotrophomonas, Sphingomonas, Flavobacterium and Serratia. Complementary inference of bacterial functioning on community level indicated that microbes with distinct stress response systems were likely enriched in the conducted treatments. The overall findings confirmed that pesticide treatments can induce a measureable shifts in non-target bacterial communities colonizing the plant phyllosphere, and thus can further influence the ecosystem services.